Kashubian language part 02



 Stefan Ramult-Pomeranian Dictionary  Jezyk kaszubski w gminach NSP2011  Powiat Pucczi 2 ubt

Stefan Ramult-Pomeranian Dictionary // Jezyk kaszubski w gminach NSP2011 // Powiat Pucczi 2 ubt…

IIINFOII – Geography – countries in Europe – Poland…

Components of Kashubian

A "standard" Kashubian language does not exist despite several attempts to create one, rather a diverse range of dialects takes its place. The vocabulary is heavily influenced by German and Polish and utilizes the Latin alphabet.

There are several similarities between Kashubian and Polish. For some linguists they consider this a sign that Kashubian is a dialect of Polish but others believe that this is just a sign that the two originate from the same location. They are nevertheless related to a certain degree and due to their close proximity of each other, Kashubian has definitely been influenced by Polish and its various dialects, specifically from its northern ones.

Some examples of similarities between languages:

  • softening of the consonant ar inflections of northern Kashubian dialects: ex: Northern Kashubian: cwiardi, czwiôrtk/Polish: twardy, czwartek
  • the disappearance of a movable e in the nominative case: ex: pòrénk, kùńc 'poranek', 'koniec'
  • vowel ô takes the place of long a as it did for Early Slavs, similar changes took place in early dialects of Polish
  • transition of -jd- to -ńd- just like the Masurian dialect: ex: przińdą 'przyjdą'

Phonology and morphology

Kashubian makes use of simplex and complex phonemes with secondary place articulation /pʲ/, /bʲ/, /fʲ/, /vʲ/ and /mʲ/. They follow the Clements and Hume (1995) constriction model, where sounds are represented in terms of constriction. They are then organized according to particular features like anterior, implying the activation of features dominating it. Due to this model, the phonemes above are treated differently than the phonemes /p/, /b/, /f/, /v/ and /m/. The vocalic place node would be placed under the C-place node and V-place nodes interpolated to preserve well-forwardness.

Vowels

Kashubian vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
unrounded unrounded rounded rounded
Close i u
Close-mid e ə o
Open-mid ɛ ɞ ɔ
Open a
  • The exact phonetic realization of the close-mid vowels /e, o/ depends on the dialect.
  • Apart from these, there are also nasal vowels /ɛ̃, ã/. Their exact phonetic realization depends on the dialect.

Consonants

Kashubian has simple consonants with a secondary articulation along with complex ones with secondary articulation.

Kashubian consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts ()
voiced dz ()
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ (ɕ) x
voiced v z ʒ (ʑ)
trill ()
Approximant l j w
Trill r
  • /tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ/ are palato-alveolar.
  • /ɲ, tɕ, dʑ, ɕ, ʑ/ are alveolo-palatal; the last four appear only in some dialects.
  • The fricative trill /r̝/ is used only by some northern and northeastern speakers; other speakers realize it as flat postalveolar [ʐ].
  • The labialized velar central approximant /w/ is realized as a velarized denti-alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ̪] by older speakers of southeastern dialects.

Kashubian alphabet

case Lower case Name of letters Pronunciation
A a a [a]
Ą ą ą [õ], [ũ]
à ã ã [ã][ɛ̃] (Puck County, Wejherowo County)
B b [b]
C c [ts]
D d [d]
E e e [ɛ]
É é é [e][ɨj] in some dialects [i]/[ɨ] from Puck to Kartuzy [ɨ] at the end of a word
Ë ë szwa [ə]
F f éf [f]
G g [ɡ]
H h ha [x]
I I i [i]
J j jot [j]
K k ka [k]
L l él [l]
Ł ł éł [w]
M m ém [m]
N n én [n]
Ń ń éń [ɲ][n]
O o o [ɔ]
Ò ò ò [wɛ]
Ó ó ó [o][u] (southern dialects)
Ô ô ô [ɞ][ɛ] (western dialects) [ɔ] (Wejherowo County) [o]/[u] (southern dialects)
P p [p]
R r ér [r]
S s és [s]
T t [t]
U u u [u]
Ù ù ù [wu]
W w [v]
Y y igrek [i]
Z z zet [z]
Ż ż żet [ʒ]

The following digraphs and trigraphs are used:

Digraph Phonemic value(s) Digraph/trigraph
(before a vowel)
Phonemic value(s)
ch /x/ ci /tɕ/
cz // dzi /dʑ/
dz /dz/ (/ts/) gi /ɡʲ/
/dʑ/ (/tɕ/) (c)hi /xʲ/
// (//) ki /kʲ/
rz /ʐ/ (/r̝/) (/ʃ/) ni /ɲ/
sz /ʃ/ si /ɕ/
    zi /ʑ/
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The original article may be a bit shortened or modified. Some links may have been modified. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.